Marc Chagall (July 6, 1887 - March 28, 1985) was a Russian-French artist whose work anticipated the dream-like imagery of Surrealism. Chagall created works in a wide range of mediums, including painting, drawing, book illustration, stained glass, ceramics, tapestry, and printmaking. Using the medium of stained glass, he produced windows for the cathedrals of Reims and Metz, windows for the UN and the Art Institute of Chicago and the Jerusalem Windows in Israel. He also did large-scale paintings, including part of the ceiling of the Paris Opéra.
Born in Vitebsk, Russia to a Hasidic Jewish family, Chagall was raised immersed in Jewish culture and iconography. The Jewish traditions and folklore of his hometown of Vitebsk permeated Chagall’s paintings, earning him his reputation as the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century. After studying in St. Petersburg, the artist moved to Paris in 1910, where he quickly befriended members of the French avant-garde, including Robert Delaunay and Fernand Léger. Visiting Russia in 1914, the artist was prevented from returning to Paris due to the outbreak of World War I until 1926. Forced to flee Paris during World War II, Chagall lived in the United States and traveled through to Israel before returning to France in 1948. The artist died in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France on March 28, 1985.